Specialist in Cornea Surgery.

Dr. Georges Baïkoff is a pioneer in ophthalmologic surgery. His main areas of interest have been modern artificial crystalline lenses, of which he was one of the first to implement in France, and refractive and corneal surgery, having performed more than 20,000 procedures in this field (corneal transplants, lasers for myopia/hyperopia/presbyopia, and therapeutic and aesthetic keratopigmentations).


Since 1980, Dr. Georges Baïkoff has developed numerous surgical techniques in the fields of Cataract, Refractive Surgery, and Corneal Transplantation.

Chief Resident at the Faculty of Medicine of Nantes in 1976.

Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at the Faculty of Medicine of Nantes from 1982 to 1988.

Private practice at the Clairval Clinic in Marseille since 1988.

Co-founder of the Monticelli-Paradis Group in Marseille in 1996.

Private practice New Vision Clinic in Nice from 2021.

Private practice New Vision Clinic in Nice during 2021.

Private practice Vision Future Clinic in Nice since 2021.

Key figures


International patents


participations in ocular surgery books


participation in reports of national and international learned societies


international scientific awards


participations in national and international conferences


functional and cosmetic surgeries of the cornea: grafts, laser refractive corrections, keratopigmentations


A new 100% French surgical technique (FLAAK) is revolutionizing the world of ophthalmology. Thanks to biocompatible medical pigments, Keratopigmentation has proven to be the safest method to correct iris defects.

Keratopigmentation to rescue the iris

Keratopigmentation does to the eye what a tattoo does to the skin. Initially used to repair iris trauma, this technique has proven to be safe in the therapeutic field.

Keratopigmentation for aesthetic purposes

Much less invasive than artificial iris placement or iris depigmentation, the procedure can be used to change eye color.

Keratopigmentation (FLAAK) consists in creating a micro-tunnel in the cornea with a Femtosecond Laser to inject a colored pigment. It uses the same laser technology as refractive surgery. Performed under local anesthesia, its after-effects are identical to those of myopia surgery. The result is immediately noticeable and the resumption of normal activities is very quick.

and the FLAAK technique

Can we change the color of the iris?

Often patients wishing to change the color of their eyes use colored contact lenses; these unfortunately are most often purchased outside of any medical control and can sometimes lead to serious complications, with infection in the first place. Professor Bourcier of Strasbourg has shown that these colored lenses are the most common cause of corneal abscesses after wearing contact lenses.

In reality it is only possible to change the color of a natural iris by photodisruption of the iris with a special Laser, but the iris fragments thus displaced are a source of complications so that this technique is refused in France, moreover the only possible color is a bluish gray.

The exchange of the iris by an artificial iris is indeed possible but is only for very severely traumatized eyes in which a total reconstruction of the anterior segment is necessary (cornea, lens, iris). Indeed in a normal eye there is not enough space to introduce the artificial iris. A series of French patients operated on in Tunisia and Latin America could be analyzed in different French centers and published in 2020: out of 87 cases 80% of serious complications were noted leading to the removal of artificial irises, some eyes lost their vision.

The FLAAK or Femto Laser Aesthetic Annular Keratopigmentation is a corneal tattoo technique with a therapeutic aim for the correction of abnormalities or traumas of the iris, then its good results have made it possible to extend it to  aesthetic purposes to change the color of the eyes.

The transition from therapeutic to aesthetic is a common approach in medicine. The reconstructive surgery of the “Broken Mouths” of the 1st World War was at the origin of the development of facial plastic surgery, therapeutic injections of botulinum toxin led to the aesthetic use of Botox®, hyaluronic acid first used in therapeutics is now essentially intended for aesthetic filling.

FLAAK, is a keratopigmentation technique  developed by Dr. Georges BAÏKOFF in collaboration with a center in Nice.

Interview FR3 - Le Dr. Baïkoff
talks about keratopigmentation


Some examples

Aesthetic Indications (change in eye color)


Therapeutic indications of Keratopigmentation

White cornea on blind eye


Cat's eye pupil (congenital iris coloboma)


Femtolaser and pigments

To perform Keratopigmentation the Femtolaser is the same as that used for refractive surgery, that is to say myopia and other visual defects (hyperopia, astigmatism, presbyopia), worldwide, millions of patients are operated every year with this type of laser.

The pigments used are manufactured in France, the only ones validated by the French and European health authorities for this indication (BIOTIC PHOCEA laboratories).

The range of colors is: blue, green, gray-blue, gray-green, brown with different intensities, black.

To change the color of the eyes the technique consists in creating in the cornea a tunnel in which the pigments will be injected. These are slightly granular so that a certain degree of transparency persists; this explains why depending on the intensity of the color of the patient’s eye the result will be slightly different from one patient to another.

OCT section of the cornea of an operated patient perfectly showing the pigment that was injected into a tunnel created at a depth of about 200 μm.

INCIDENTS and COMPLICATIONS keratopigmentation

These are very broadly described in informed consent.

To simplify it should be remembered that these are exactly the same as those of myopia surgery since the surgery is very similar: they are essentially dry eye, sensitivity to light, a feeling of foreign body, a red eye (subconjunctival hemorrhage), hyperopia with aggravation of presbyopia, all transient phenomena,  the return to normal is done in a few days or even weeks.

The most serious complication would be post-operative infection, so it is imperative to adhere to rigorous hygiene measures at eye and hand level a week before and after keratopigmentation.

The pigment is perfectly tolerated, allergic phenomena could be seen, so it is imperative to warn the surgical team of your possible allergies. In rare cases an attenuation of the coloration may appear, it is simple to correct with a reinjection because the tunnel is easy to find.

This phenomenon should not be confused with an impression of color change especially for blue or green grays because the hue takes a few weeks to stabilize. It should also be noted that lighting (LEDs, daylight, flash, etc.) can strongly influence the sensation of color perceived by the patient or his entourage.

The perception and experience of the entourage are undoubtedly the main psychological complication that can be encountered. If the candidate is used to wearing colored lenses, this generally poses no or little problem, otherwise relatives will often criticize your decision before the intervention and then after it will take them a few weeks to get used to your new physiognomy.


The intervention takes place at the FUTURE VISION CENTER, 5 rue du CONGRES in NICE.

It is performed under local anesthesia with instillations of anesthetic eye drops and taking a sedative drug. Avoid stimulants before the procedure (tobacco, coffee, alcohol, etc.) and take only a light snack.

Shortly after the procedure you will leave the Centre. It is prudent to return home by taxi or accompanying person, but do not leave by driving your own vehicle.

A postoperative control is systematic the next day.

Contact us

5 rue du CONGRES 0600 NICE